Multimodal treatment program in non-specific low back pain – A case series
Similarity Check

PlumX Metrics


non-specific low back pain

How to Cite

Satria Nugraha, M. H. (2022). Multimodal treatment program in non-specific low back pain – A case series. Jurnal SPORTIF : Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran, 8(2), 217 - 225.


Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) has a high prevalence among the population. NSLBP not only affects individuals but also has an impact on decreasing work productivity and ultimately affecting the economic sector. There are several multimodal that can be given to treat NSLBP. This case series is a preliminary study to determine the effectiveness of the combination of ultrasound therapy, stretching training, lumbar joint mobilization, and lumbopelvic stabilization training in NSLBP in improving pain and reducing back disability. The intervention was given three times in 1 week for four weeks (12 sessions) to 3 respondents. The effectiveness of therapy was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS) to measure pain reduction and the Indonesian version of the modified Oswestry disability index (MODI) to assess the decrease in lower back disability in NSLBP. Based on the results of the case series, there was a decrease in the average NRS value from 4.67 to 1.93 (with a difference in the average decrease of 2.74), and there was a decrease in the average MODI value from 32 to 13.67 (with a difference in the mean decrease of 18.33). The results of this case series provide information that the combination of UST, stretching exercise, joint mobilization, and lumbopelvic stabilization exercise is beneficial in reducing pain and disability in NSLBP. This case series is a preliminary study on the multimodal combination in the treatment of NSLBP. It is hoped that further experimental studies will be conducted to prove this combination's effectiveness in treating individuals with NSLBP.
Similarity Check


Bitenc-Jasiejko, A., Konior, K., & Lietz-Kijak, D. (2020). Meta-Analysis of Integrated Therapeutic Methods in Noninvasive Lower Back Pain Therapy (LBP): The Role of Interdisciplinary Functional Diagnostics. Pain Research and Management, 2020, 1–17.

Câmara-Gomes, L. F., Dibai Filho, A. V., Diniz, R. R., Alvares, P. D., Veneroso, C. E., & Cabido, C. E. T. (2022). Mechanisms of muscle stretching exercises for reduction of low back pain: narrative review. Brazilian Journal Of Pain, 5(1).

Chang, W.-D., Lin, H.-Y., & Lai, P.-T. (2015). Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(3), 619–622.

Chen, H.-M., Wang, H.-H., Chen, C.-H., & Hu, H.-M. (2014). Effectiveness of a Stretching Exercise Program on Low Back Pain and Exercise Self-Efficacy Among Nurses in Taiwan: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Pain Management Nursing, 15(1), 283–291.

Chiarotto, A., Maxwell, L. J., Ostelo, R. W., Boers, M., Tugwell, P., & Terwee, C. B. (2019). Measurement Properties of Visual Analogue Scale, Numeric Rating Scale, and Pain Severity Subscale of the Brief Pain Inventory in Patients With Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Pain, 20(3), 245–263.

Coulter, I. D., Crawford, C., Hurwitz, E. L., Vernon, H., Khorsan, R., Suttorp Booth, M., & Herman, P. M. (2018). Manipulation and mobilization for treating chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Spine Journal, 18(5), 866–879.

Ebadi, S., Henschke, N., Nakhostin Ansari, N., Fallah, E., & van Tulder, M. W. (2014). Therapeutic ultrasound for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Haile, G., Hailemariam, T. T., & Haile, T. G. (2021). Effectiveness of Ultrasound Therapy on the Management of Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review. Journal of Pain Research, Volume 14, 1251–1257.

Hecimovich, M., Pomije, M., & Harbaugh, A. (2018). Comparing lumbopelvic stabilization exercises and yoga on functional stability and low back pain in young, non-elite, female gymnasts. Physiotherapy and Health Activity, 25(1), 1–8.

Kisner, C., & Colby, L. (2012). Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques. F.A. Davis Company.

Lutke Schipholt, I. J., Coppieters, M. W., Meijer, O. G., Tompra, N., de Vries, R. B. M., & Scholten-Peeters, G. G. M. (2021). Effects of joint and nerve mobilisation on neuroimmune responses in animals and humans with neuromusculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PAIN Reports, 6(2), e927.

Oliveira, C. B., Maher, C. G., Pinto, R. Z., Traeger, A. C., Lin, C.-W. C., Chenot, J.-F., van Tulder, M., & Koes, B. W. (2018). Clinical practice guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care: an updated overview. European Spine Journal, 27(11), 2791–2803.

Papadopoulos, E. S., & Mani, R. (2020). The Role of Ultrasound Therapy in the Management of Musculoskeletal Soft Tissue Pain. The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 19(4), 350–358.

Princeton University. (2017). Lumbar/Core Strength and Stability Exercises. Http://Www.Rsgplus.Org/Wp-Content/Uploads/2017/10/Lumbar.Pdf.

Ribeiro, R. P., Sedrez, J. A., Candotti, C. T., & Vieira, A. (2018). Relação entre a dor lombar crônica não específica com a incapacidade, a postura estática e a flexibilidade. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, 25(4), 425–431.

Shiri, R., Coggon, D., & Falah-Hassani, K. (2018). Exercise for the Prevention of Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(5), 1093–1101.

Smith, B. E., Littlewood, C., & May, S. (2014). An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 15(1), 416.

Tavares, F. A. G., Chaves, T. C., Silva, E. D., Guerreiro, G. D., Gonçalves, J. F., & Albuquerque, A. A. A. de. (2017). Immediate effects of joint mobilization compared to sham and control intervention for pain intensity and disability in chronic low back pain patients: randomized controlled clinical trial. Revista Dor, 18(1).

Wahyuddin, Ivanali, K., & Harun, A. (2016). Adaptasi Lintas Budaya Modifikasi Kuesioner Disabilitas untuk Nyeri Punggung Bawah (Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire/ODI) Versi Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Fisioterapi, 16(2).

Watson, T. (2017). Ultrasound Dose Calculations. Dose Calculations 2017.pdf

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Made Hendra Satria Nugraha


Download data is not yet available.