Flexibility is an important basic component in sports activities, which supports the achievement of the maximum performance of an athlete. Exercises are needed for stretching proper this study aimed to determine: (1) the effect of passive static stretching on shoulder flexibility, (2) the effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching on shoulder flexibility (3) determine which exercise is better on shoulder flexibility between stretching and PNF. the method used is experimental with pretest and post-test design. The research sample was 16 students of the Sport Coaching Education study program, Faculty of Sport, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. research data was obtained using the sit and reach test. Data analysis using an independent sample test with the help of the SPSS 22.0 program. The results of the study (1) passive static stretching effect on togok flexibility, the test results show the value of sig. 0.00 < 0.05. (2) practice PNF affects the flexibility of stakes. The study results show that both passive tactical stretching exercises and PNF exercises have a significant effect on increasing flexibility, but empirical data states that PNF exercise is more effective in increasing flexibility.
Arif, R. T. (2017). Perbedaan peregangan dinamis dan peregangan proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) terhadap fleksibilitas pada mahasiswa profesi dokter universitas andalas (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Andalas).
Ayers, SF, & Sariscsany, MJ (2011). Physical education for lifelong fitness (National Association for Sport and Physical Education (ed.); Third Edit). Human Kinetics.
Batista, L. H., Vilar, A. C., de Almeida Ferreira, J. J., Rebelatto, J. R., & Salvini, T. F. (2019). Active stretching improves flexibility, joint torque, and functional mobility in older women. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 88(10), 815-822. http://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181b72149
Baxter, C., Mc Naughton, L. R., Sparks, A., Norton, L., & Bentley, D. (2017). Impact of stretching on the performance and injury risk of long-distance runners. Research in Sports Medicine, 25(1), 78-90.
Behm, DG (2019). The Science and Physiology of Hearing: Implications and Applications in Sports Performance and Health (First Edit). Routledge.
Berg, K. (2011). Prescriptive Stretching. In JM Goodreau; (Ed.), Prescriptive Stretching. Human Kinetics. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781718209633
Bompa, TO, & Buzzichelli, C. (2015). Periodization Training for Sports-3rd Edition. https://books.google.com/books?id=Zb7GoAEACAAJ&pgis=1
Bompa, TO, Di Pasquale, MG, & Cornacchia, L. (2013). Serious strength training (J. Klug (ed.); Third Edit). Human Kinetics.
Caplan, N., Rogers, R., Parr, MK, & Hayes, PR (2009). The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(4), 1175–1180. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318199d6f6
Chen, W., Wang, L., You, W., & Shan, T. (2021). Myokines mediate the cross talk between skeletal muscle and other organs. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 236(4), 2393-2412.
Cini, A., de Vasconcelos, G. S., & Lima, C. S. (2017). Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation, 30(2), 241-246.
Donti, Papia, K., Toubekis, A., Donti, A., Sands, WA, & Bogdanis, GC (2018). Flexibility training in preadolescent female athletes: Acute and long-term effects of intermittent and continuous static stretching. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(13), 1453–1460. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1397309
Funk, D. C., Swank, A. M., Mikla, B. M., Fagan, T. A., & Farr, B. K. (2003). Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(3), 489-492.
Ibrahim, R. C., Polii, H., & Wungouw, H. (2015). Pengaruh Latihan Peregangan Terhadap Fleksibilitas Lansia. e-Biomedik, 3(1).
Jung, H., & Yamasaki, M. (2016). Association of lower extremity range of motion and muscle strength with physical performance of community-dwelling older women. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 35(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40101-016-0120-8
Laughlin, KIT (2014). Stretching & flexibility (second Edi). Body Press.
Lim, C.-H. (2011). Effects of static, dynamic, PNF stretching on the isokinetic peak torque. The Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Therapy, 23(6), 37–42.
Lima, CD, Ruas, CV, Behm, DG, & Brown, LE (2019). Acute Effects of Stretching on Flexibility and Performance: A Narrative Review. Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise, 1(1), 29–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42978-019-0011-x
Lockie, R. G., Dawes, J. J., Kornhauser, C. L., & Holmes, R. J. (2019). Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort analysis of the effects of age on flexibility, strength endurance, lower-body power, and aerobic fitness in law enforcement officers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(2), 451-458.
López-Bedoya, J., Vernetta-Santana, M., Robles-Fuentes, A., & Ariza-Vargas, L. (2013). Effect of three types of flexibility training on active and passive hip range of motion. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 53(3), 304-311
McKay, M. J., Baldwin, J. N., Ferreira, P., Simic, M., Vanicek, N., Burns, J., & 1000 Norms Project Consortium. (2017). Normative reference values for strength and flexibility of 1,000 children and adults. Neurology, 88(1), 36-43. http://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003466
McGinnis, PM (2013). Biomechanics of sport and exercise (Third Edit).
Narlan, A., & Juniar, D. (2020). Pengukuran dan Evaluasi Olahraga. Yogyakarta: Deepublish.
Opplert, J., & Babault, N. (2018). Acute effects of dynamic stretching on muscle flexibility and performance: an analysis of the current literature. Sports Medicine, 48(2), 299-325.
Ponraj, M., & Karthikeyan, R. (2017). Effect of Static, Dynamic and PNF Stretching with Specific Football Training Package on Agility of Football Players. Journal of Recent Research and Applied Studies, 4(8), 61–64.
Pratama, Z. M. (2016). Pengaruh Latihan Fleksibilitas Metode Pnf Terhadap Peningkatan Fleksibilitas Panggul Dan Kecepatan Tendangan Sabit Dalam Cabang Olahraga Beladiri Pencak Silat (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia).
Schmidt, RA, & Wrisberg., CA (2000). Motor Learning and Performance: A Problem-Based Learning Approach (JP Wright (ed.); Second Edi). Human Kinetics.
Shorty, T., & Train, F. (2012). Stretching Exercises Encyclopedia. Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK).
Walker, B. (2011). Ultimate Guide to Stretching and Flexibility (3rd Edition).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad A'raaf Hidayatullah, Muchsin Doewes, Sapta Kunta Purnama